Guide to the Animal Kingdom for Students and EducatorsGuide to the Animal Kingdom for Students and Educators

Within this Guide links are provided to useful internet resources for each major animal group.

Protozoa — 'unicellular' eukaryotes, may be referred to as protists, protozoans, unicellulates etc; often now included in a separate kingdom together with fungal protists and algae — as the Protista or Protoctista — a grouping of problematical and multiple lineage; many groups have representatives traditionally studied by both algologists and zoologists, leading to much confusion in terminology and classification; the scheme followed here takes a zoological viewpoint [links]
Mastigophora mastigophorans, flagellates
Phytomastigophorea phytoflagellates, groups include representatives which have chloroplasts and are photosynthetic
Chloromonadida chloromonads, chlorophytes (Heterosigma)
Chrysomonadida chrysomonads, chrysophytes, yellow-green algae (Mallomonas, Ochromonas)
Cryptomonadida cryptomonads,
cryptophytes, found all over the world — both free living
in moist places and parasitic in animals (Cryptomonas, Rhodomonas)
Dinoflagellida dinocysts, dinoflagellates, dinomastigotes, dinophytes, mostly marine planktonic but some freshwater representatives, may form 'red tides' (Gonyaulax), be luminescent (Noctiluca), form symbiotic relationships with coelenterates (Gymnodinium), and others (Peridinium)
Euglenida euglenoid flagellates, euglenophyta, mostly inhabit freshwater enriched with organic matter (Euglena), some marine or brackish, a few are parasitic in animals
Prymnesiida prymnesiophytes, haptophytes, golden motile algae viewed by marine biologists as calcareous nannoplankton plankton and by palaeontologists as coccolithophorids (Coccolithus, Prymnesium)
Silicoflagellida silicoflagellates
Volvocida (Chlamydomonas, Chloromonas, Dunaliella, Volvox)
Zoomastigophorea zooflagellates
Choanoflagellida choanoflagellates,
collar-flagellates, may be solitary (Salpingoeca) or
colonial (Proterospongia), colonial choanoflagellates
resemble sponges and it is thought that they might represent what an ancestor of all metazoans might have been like
Diplomonadida some freeliving in freshwater but most commensal or parasitic in intestines of animals (Giardia, Hexamita)
Kinetoplastida include the freeliving bodonids and parasitic trypanosomes (Leishmania, Trypanosoma)
Proteromonadida (Proteromonas)
Trichomonadida (Trichomonas, Tritrichomonas)
Opalinata (Opalina)
Sarcodina made up of superclasses Rhizopoda (amastigote amoebae and thecamoebae) and the Actinopoda which includes the radiolarian groups
Gymnamoebia (Gymnamoeba)
Amoebida (Acanthamoeba, Amoeba, Entamoeba)
Pelobiontida karyoblasteans,freeliving amoeboid protists completely lacking mitochondria (Pelomyxa)
Schizopyrenida sometimes called amoeboflagellates, common in soils, some are pathogenic in man(Naegleria)
Arcellinida (Arcella, Difflugia)
Acarpomyxea (Leptomyxa)
Acrasea cellular slime moulds (Acrasis)
Eumycetozoea includes cellular slime moulds, the prosteliids (Ceratiomyxa) and dictyosteliids (Dictyostelium, Polysphondylium), together with acellular, plasmodial or true slime moulds — myxogastrids, myxomycota, myxomycetes (Physarum)
Plasmodiophorea mostly obligate parasites of plants (Plasmodiophora, Spongospora)
Filosea includes aconchulinids and gromiids (Euglypha)
Granuloreticulosia includes Foraminifera (Ammonia, Anomalina, Globigerina, Globorotalia, Trochammina)
Xenophyophorea (Psammina)
Acantharea radiolarian group
Polycystinea radiolarian group
Phaeodarea radiolarian group
Heliozoea primarily freshwater (Acanthocystis, Dimorpha, Raphidocystis)
Labyrinthomorpha labyrinthulids, slime nets, form transparent colonies of individual cells (Labyrinthula)
Apicomplexa named for 'apical complex' a distinctive arrangement of organelles at one end of the cell, all are spore forming parasites of animals and include the haematozoan parasites of vertebrate blood
Perkinsea (Perkinsus)
Gregarinia gregarines (Gregarina, Nematopsis)
Coccidia coccidians, malarial parasites (Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Hepatozoon, Isospora, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma)
Piroplasmia piroplasmids (Babesia, Theileria)
Microspora mostly intracellular parasites of vertebrates (Glugea, Microsporidium, Nosema)
Ascetospora (=Haplospora) includes the spore forming parasites Haplosporidia (Haplosporidium, Urosporidium) and Paramyxea
Myxozoa (=Cnidospora) traditionally considered protistan parasites but recent molecular evidence supports an origin with parasitic cnidarians
Myxosporea myxosporidians, parasites of vertebrates and often disease causing in fish (Ceratomyxa, Henneguya, Kudea, Myxidium, Myxobolus)
Actinosporea actinomyxids, parasites of invertebrates
Ciliophora ciliates, infusorians, characterized by having cilia
Gymnostomatia includes Katyorelictida (Loxodes) and Prostomatida (Didinium)
Vestibulifera includes Colpodida (Colpoda), Entodiniomorpha (Entodinium, Polyplastron) and Trichostomatida (Balantidium, Dasytricha)
Hypostomatia includes Apostomatida, Cyrtophorida and Nassulida
Suctoria (Trichophrya)
Hymenostomatida includes Astomatida, Hymenostomatida (Colpidium, Paramecium, Tetrahymena) and Scuticociliatida (Uronema)
Peritrichia peritrichs (Ophrydium, Trichodina, Vorticella)
Spirotrichia includes Heterotrichida (Bursaria, Metopus, Stentor), Hypotrichida (Euplotes, Oxytricha), Oligotrichida (Strombidium, tintinnids)

multicellular mitochondrial eukaryotes (together with plants, fungi and some
protists sometimes referred to as Crown Eukaryotes)

Invertebrates 'animals without backbones'; here taken to include all non-chordate metazoans:-
Porifera poriferans, sponges, characterized by pores in their outside walls through which water is drawn [links]
Calcarea calcareous sponges with spicules of calcium carbonate (Clathrina)
Demospongiae have a skeletal network of spongin fibers and/or siliceous spicules, includes all known freshwater sponges (Ephydatia, Haliclona, Spongilla)
Hexactinellida glass sponges with siliceous spicules (Hexactinella, Rossella)
Sclerospongiae a polyphyletic grouping
Stromatoporoidea fossil group with massive calcareous skeletons (Stromatoporella)

Coelenterata (=Cnidaria) coelenterates, mainly marine phylum characterized by cnida or nematocysts used in feeding; characteristic body forms are the polyp (generally sedentary) and the medusa (generally motile) [links]
Anthozoa includes most corals & sea anemones, coelenterates whose living representatives lack a medusoid 'jellyfish' stage in their life cycle
Ceriantipatharia black corals, thorny corals (Antipathes, Cerianthus)
Octocorallia (=Alcyonaria)
alcyonarians, soft corals, sea pens (Alcyonium, Renilla)
Zoantharia (=Hexacorallia) corals and sea anemones
Actiniaria sea anemones
(Actinia, Metridium)
Rugosa fossil rugose corals, tetracorals (Acanthophyllum, Stylostrotion)
Scleractinia (=Madreporaria)
hard corals, stony corals, true corals (Acropora, Fungia,
Montastraea, Porites)
Tabulata tabulate corals, fossil (Alveolites, Heliolites)
Zoanthiniaria (=Zoanthidea)
(Palythoa, Zoanthus)
Cubozoa box jellyfish (Carybdea)
Hydrozoa (=Hydromedusae) mostly alternate between polyp and medusa stage, many are colonial
Hydroida freshwater hydras & colonial hydroids (Hydra, Hydractinia, Obelia, Plumularia, Tubularia)
Milleporina (=Milleporida)
hydrocorals, millepores (Millepora)
Siphonophorida (=Siphonophora)
colonial jellyfish (Physalia)
Scyphozoa true jellyfish (Aurelia, Chrysaora, Rhopilema)
Ctenophora comb jellies, ctenophores, jelly like motile marine organisms with rows of beating cilia or comb plates (Beroe, Mnemiopsis, Pleurobrachia) [links]
Echinodermata echinoderms, marine deuterostome organisms characterized by tube feet which form part of the water vascular system, thought to possibly have a common ancestry with the chordates [links]
Crinoidea featherstars, sea lilies (Barycrinus, Metacrinus)
Echinoidea heart urchins, sand dollars, sea urchins (Clypeaster, Echinus, Echinocardium, Hemicentrotus, Lytechinus, Paracentrotus, Strongylocentrotus)
Holothuroidea sea cucumbers (Cucumaria, Holothuria, Stichopus)
Asteroidea sea stars, starfish
(Acanthaster, Asterias, Pisaster)
Ophiuroidea brittle stars (Amphiura, Ophiura)

Platyhelminthes flat worms, acoelomate animals of uncertain origin [links]
Cestoda tapeworms (Diphyllobothrium, Echinococcus, Hymenolepis, Taenia)
Trematoda parasitic flukes (Cercaria, Diplostomum, Fasciola, Gyrodactylus, Schistosoma)
Turbellaria turbellarians, free living flatworms (Dugesia, Temnocephala)
Nematoda nematodes, roundworms, threadworms (some), whipworms, lungworms, hookworms, eelworms; a pseudocoelomate phylum with both parasitic and free-living representatives, exist in very large numbers (Ascaris, Caenorhabditis C. elegans, Haemonchus, Heterorhabditis, Meloidogyne, Onchocerca, Toxocara) [links]
Acanthocephala acanthocephalans, spiny headed worms; a parasitic pseudocoelomate phylum with spiny protrusible proboscis (Acanthocephalus, Corynosoma, Moniliformis) [links]
Mesozoa mesozoans, small worm like organisms at one time though to be degenerate flatworms (Rhopalura) [links]
Nematomorpha nematomorphans, horsehair worms, threadworms (some), gordian worms; a pseudocoelomate phylum (Gordius) [links]
Nemertinea (=Rhynchocoela, Nemertea) nemertines, proboscis worms, rhynchocoels, ribbon worms, acoelomate worms with extensible proboscis (Cerebratulus, Lineus) [links]
Annelida annelids, segmented coelomate worms with chitinous bristles [links]
Hirudinea leeches (Helobdella, Hirudo, Notostomum) [links]
Oligochaeta earthworms, terrestrial bristle worms (Dendrobaena, Eisenia, Lumbricus, Tubifex) [links]
Polychaeta lugworms, paddleworms, polychaetes, ragworms, sandworms, include parasitic Myzostomida but otherwise mostly marine (Arenicola, Cirratulus, Glycera, Lanice, Nereis, Polydora, Serpula) [links]
Rotifera (=Rotatoria) rotifers,'wheel animals' named for rotating ring of cilia; a pseudocoelomate phylum (Asplanchna, Brachionus, Lecane) [links]
Cephalorhyncha cephalorhynchans
Chaetognatha chaetognaths, arrow worms, small marine arrow shaped organisms with moveable hooks (Sagitta) [links]
Cycliophora a new phylum only discovered in 1995 with a single species (Symbion pandora) [links]
Echiura echiurans, spoon worms, marine worms with extensible proboscis which live in u-shaped tubes (Echiurus, Urechis) [links]
Gastrotricha gastrotrichs, free-living wormlike organisms with lobed heads; a pseudocoelomate phylum (Chaetonotus, Macrodasys, Xenotrichula) [links]
Gnathostomulida gnathostomulids, jaw worms; a pseudocoelomate phylum (Gnathostomula) [links]
Kinorhyncha kinorhynchs, free-living marine, with spiny heads used in characteristic locomotion after which they are named; a pseudocoelomate phylum (Echinoderes) [links]
Loricifera loricifers; a pseudocoelomate phylum first described in 1983 with spiny heads and abdominal plates called lorica (Nanaloricus) [links]
Placozoa a parazoan group represented by the single species (Trichoplax adhaerens) [links]
Pogonophora pogonophorans, beard worms, deep-sea sessile worms of uncertain lineage which produce upright tubes to live in (Siboglinum) [links]
Priapulida (=Priapula) priapulids; a pseudocoelomate protostomate phylum, short fat marine worms about which relatively little is known (Priapulus) [links]
Sipuncula sipunculids, peanut worms, unsegmented protostomate marine worms characterized by the introvert, a contractile organ used in locomotion (Golfingia, Phascolion, Sipunculus) [links]
Vestimentifera vestimentifers, phylum first described in 1985 for genera formerly considered to be pogonophorans (Escarpia, Lamellibrachia, Ridgeia)
Conodonta conodonts, group of conoidal shaped fossils (Polygnathus) [links]
Brachiopoda brachiopods, lamp shells; a marine lophophorate phylum of shelled animals with an extensive fossil record; Lingula is possibly the oldest genus with known living representatives [links]
Bryozoa (=Ectoprocta, Polyzoa) bryozoans, ectoprocts, polyzoans, 'moss' animals; a lophophorate & coelomate phylum of aquatic & mostly colonial animals; (some classifications group Ectoprocta together with Entoprocta as Bryozoa) (Bugula, Membranipora, Plumatella) [links]
Entoprocta (=Kamptozoa) entoprocts, kamptozoans; a marine pseudocoelomate phylum, mostly sessile filter feeders (Loxosoma) [links]
Mollusca molluscs, mollusks, soft bodied animals mostly with an internal or external calcareous shell [links]
Aplacophora solenogasters, deep-sea worm like animals [links]
Polyplacophora modern chitons (Chiton, Tonicella) [links]
Monoplacophora mostly fossil, living species not discovered until 1977 (Neopilina) [links]
Gastropoda slugs, snails & their relatives [links]
Prosobranchia snails (Buccinum, Calliostoma, Cerithium, Conus, Cypraea, Haliotis, Littorina, Murex, Oliva, Patella, Strombus, Thais)
Heterobranchia (Architectonica, Nerinea, Pyramidella, Turbonilla)
Opisthobranchia slugs
Anaspidea (=Aplysiomorpha) (Aplysia — sea hares)
Notaspidea (Pleurobranchaea)
Nudibranchia (Acanthodoris)
Archaeopulmonata (Melampus)
Basommatophora (Biomphalaria,
Bulinus, Lymnaea)
Stylommatophora land snails (Achatina, Arion, Helix, Liguus, Limax, Partula, Polymita, Succinea)
Cephalopoda cephalopods [links]
Nautiloidea once abundant, Nautilus is now the only genus with living representatives
Ammonoidea ammonites & their relatives, only known from fossils (Ammonites)
Coleoidea group containing all living cephalopods other than Nautilus
Belemnitida belemnites, fossils (Belemnites, Gonioteuthis)
Octopoda octopods, octopuses, devilfishes (Argonauta, Eledone, Octopus)
Sepiida cuttlefish; often grouped with squid as Decapoda (Euprymna, Sepia, Spirula)
Teuthida squid; often grouped with cuttlefish as Decapoda (Illex, Loligo, Sepioteuthis, Todarodes)
Vampyromorpha vampire squid
Bivalvia bivalves, pelecypods, lamellibranchs, includes clams, mussels, oysters etc with laterally hinged bivalve shells (Arca, Cardium, Crassostrea, Dreissena D. polymorpha — zebra mussel, Macoma, Mactra, Modiolus, Mya, Mytilus, Pecten, Unio, Venus) [links]
Scaphopoda razor shells, tusk shells, tooth shells (Dentalium) [links]

Arthropoda arthropods, 'jointed legged animals' characterized by segmented bodies and jointed appendages; have gills or tracheae; easily the largest phylum of all animals & of great economic importance, possibly a polyphyletic group [links]
Crustacea crustaceans, mainly aquatic animals with gills and a dorsal carapace or shell, includes crabs, lobsters, shrimps etc [links]
Branchiopoda branchiopods [links]
Anostraca fairy shrimps (Artemia) [links]
Cladocera water fleas (Bosmina, Daphnia) [links]
Conchostraca clam shrimps (Leptestheria) [links]
Notostraca tadpole shrimps (Lepidurus, Triops) [links]
Branchiura fish lice; incl. in Maxillopoda of some authors (Argulus, Chonopeltis) [links]
Cephalocarida [links]
Cirripedia barnacles; incl. in Maxillopoda of some authors (Balanus, Lepas) [links]
Copepoda copepods; incl. in Maxillopoda of some authors (Acartia, Calanus, Caligus, Cyclops, Diaptomus, Ergasilus, Harpacticus) [links]
Malacostraca large group with heavily calcified external skeleton, two pairs of well-developed antennae, 8 segments in thorax each with a pair of appendages, 6-7 segments in abdomen; many well known representatives, including: [links]
Decapoda [links]
Natantia prawns, shrimps (Alpheus, Crangon, Hippolyte, Macrobrachium, Pandalus, Penaeus) [links]
Reptantia [links]
Anomura hermit crabs (Callianassa, Pagurus, Upogebia) [links]
Astacura crayfish, true lobsters (Astacus, Cambarus, Homarus, Nephrops, Orconectes, Procambarus) [links]
Brachyura true crabs (Callinectes C.sapidus — blue crab, Cancer, Maja, Ocypode, Scylla, Uca) [links]
Palinura slipper lobsters, spiny lobsters (Jasus, Palinurus, Panulirus) [links]
Euphausiacea krill (Meganyctiphanes, Thysanoessa) [links]
Stomatopoda mantis shrimps (Squilla) [links]
Amphipoda amphipods (Corophium, Gammarus, Talorchestia) [links]
Cumacea cumaceans [links]
Isopoda isopods, pill bugs, woodlice (Armadillidium, Idotea, Ligia, Limnoria, Oniscus, Porcellio) [links]
Mysidacea mysids (Mysis, Neomysis) [links]
Ostracoda ostracods; incl. in Maxillopoda of some authors (Candona, Limnocythere) [links]

Trilobitomorpha trilobites, known only from fossils (Calymene, Phacops) [links]
Arachnida arachnids, spiders & their allies [links]
Acari mites, ticks (Amblyomma, Boophilus, Dermacentor, Eriophyes, Haemaphysalis, Ixodes, Oribates, Psoroptes, Sarcoptes, Tetranychus, Varroa)
Araneae true spiders (Araneus, Erigone, Gnaphosa, Pardosa, Tarentula) [links]
Opiliones (=Phalangiida) harvesters [links]
Pseudoscorpionida (=Pseudoscorpiones) false scorpions, pseudoscorpions (Roncus) [links]
Scorpiones true scorpions (Buthus, Centruroides, Tityus) [links]
Solpugida (=Solifugae) sun spiders (Solpuga) [links]
Merostomata merostomatans, horseshoe crabs [links]
Xiphosura king crabs (Limulus)
Pycnogonida (=Pantopoda) pycnogonids, pantopods, sea spiders (Pycnogonum) [links]
Smaller arthropod and allied groups
Arthropleurida arthropleuridans, fossil group (Arthropleura)
Onychophora onychophorans, velvet worms, small wormlike creatures from humid environments which crawl like caterpillars, show characteristcs of both the annelid and arthropod phyla (Peripatus) [links]
Pentastomida pentastomids, tongue worms, parasitic group of uncertain affinities (Linguatula) [links]
Tardigrada tardigrades, waterbears, very small animals with a thick nonchitinous cuticle and 4 pairs of unjointed legs (Echiniscus, Macrobiotus) [links]

Myriapoda myriapods (sometimes grouped with Insecta in the arthropod subphylum Uniramia) [links]
Chilopoda centipedes (Lithobius, Scolopendra)
Diplopoda millipedes (Glomeris, Polydesmus)
Pauropoda pauropods (Allopauropus)
Symphyla (=Symphylida)

Hexapoda insects and some closely related more ancient groups, all with six walking legs
Collembola springtails, very abundant & widely distributed (Isotoma, Onychiurus) [links]
Protura very small & eyeless with enlarged forelegs (Eosentomon) [links]
Diplura two pronged bristletails (position unclear but traditionally included in Entognatha along with Collembola and Protura) (Campodea) [links]
Insecta insects [links]
Anoplura sucking lice, true lice (Pediculus, Solenopotes) [links]
Coleoptera beetles (includes Buprestoidea Caraboidea Lampyris noctiluca — glow worm Leptinotarsa decemlineata — Colorado Beetle Strepsiptera) [links]
Dermaptera earwigs (Forficula, Labidura) [links]
Dictyoptera [links]
Blattodea (=Blattaria) cockroaches (Blaberus, Blattella, Periplaneta americana — American cockroach)
Mantodea (=Manteodea) mantids (Mantis, Tenodera)

Diptera true flies (Aedes aegypti — malaria mosquito Chironomidae, Drosophila — fruit flies Tachinidae) [links]
Ephemeroptera mayflies, shadflies (Baetis, Ephemera, Hexagenia, Rhithrogena) [links]
Hemiptera [links]
Heteroptera true bugs
Aphidoidea aphids, plant lice
Cicadoidea cicadas
Coccoidea mealy bugs, scale insects
Psylloidea jumping plant lice

Hymenoptera includes social wasps and ants [links]
Symphyta sawflies
chalcid wasps
true wasps
Apoidea bees (Apis mellifera — honeybee)

Isoptera termites, white ants (Coptotermes, Nasutitermes, Reticulitermes) [links]
Lepidoptera butterflies & moths [links]
Bombycoidea (Bombyx mori — silk moth)
Noctuoidea noctuid moths (Lymantria dispar — gypsy moth)
Papilionoidea butterflies (Vanessa)

Mallophaga bird lice, biting lice (Menopon) [links]
Mantophasmatodea [links]
Mecoptera scorpionflies (Boreus, Panorpa) [links]
Megaloptera alder flies, dobson flies, fish flies (Chauliodes, Sialis) [links]
Neuroptera (=Planipennia) dobsonflies, doodlebugs, lacewings (Ankylopteryx, Chrysopa, Chrysoperla, Myrmeleontidae — antlions) [links]
Odonata damselflies, dragonflies (Aeschna, Argia, Calopteryx, Ischnura, Libellula, Orthetrum, Sympetrum) [links]
Orthoptera [links]
Phasmida (=Phasmatodea) leaf insects, stick insects (Carausius, Cuniculina)
Saltatoria crickets, grasshoppers, groundhoppers, katydids, locusts (Acheta, Acrida, Chorthippus, Gryllus, Locusta migratoria — migratory locust, Melanoplus, Oxya, Schistocerca gragaria — desert locust, Tettigonia)

Plecoptera (=Perlaria) stone flies (Isoperla, Leuctra, Nemoura) [links]
Psocoptera bark lice, book lice (Caecilius, Loensia, Psocus) [links]
Siphonaptera fleas (Ceratophyllus, Ctenocephalides, Xenopsylla) [links]
Strepsiptera twisted wing insects [links]
Thysanoptera thrips (Aelothrips, Frankliniella, Haplothrips, Thrips) [links]
Thysanura bristletails, silverfish (Lepisma) [links]
Trichoptera caddis flies (Hydropsyche, Hydroptila, Limnephilus, Rhyacophila) [links]

Hemichordata hemichordates, marine wormlike animals which live in u-shaped burrows in sand or mud, do have some chordate characteristics but not a notochord as once erroneously thought [links]
Enteropneusta acorn worms, tongue worms, solitary (Balanoglossus Saccoglossus)
Planctosphaeroidea only known from pelagic larval forms
Pterobranchia pterobranchs, mostly colonial (Cephalodiscus Rhabdopleura)
Graptolithina graptolites, a group of marine colonial animals that lived from the Cambrian to the mid-Carboniferous, most of them floated freely about in the ocean, but some lived attached to the bottom, most fossil graptolites look like nothing so much as tiny sawblades and they have a checkered history of classification — their affinities being very difficult make out (Mediograptus)
Phoronida phoronids, lophophorate marine worm like animals of uncertain affinities (Phoronis) [links]
Chordata chordates, characterized by having a single dorsal nerve chord, a notochord and pharyngeal gill slits at some stage of their life cycle [links]
Calcichordata calcichordates, fossil group of uncertain lineage
Urochordata (=Tunicata) urochordates, tunicates, mostly sessile marine organisms [links]
Ascidiacea sea squirts (Botryllus Ciona)
Larvacea (=Appendicularia) appendicularians (Oikopleura)
Thaliacea chain tunicates, salps (Salpa)
Cephalochordata (=Acrania) cephalochordates, acraniates, lancelets, amphioxus, small scaleless fish like animals (Branchiostoma) [links]
Craniata craniates, have skulls (often subdivided into two groups — the Agnatha lacking jaws & the Gnathostomata with jaws)
Myxini hagfishes, jawless eel shaped marine fish (Eptatretus Myxine)
Vertebrata vertebrates, have backbones, group includes lampreys and all jawed vertebrates: [links]
'Fish like' groups:-
Pituriaspida jawless armoured vertebrates known only from Devonian of Australia (Pituriaspis Neeyambaspis)
Pteraspidomorphi (=Diplorhina) pteraspidomorphs, Ordovician/Devonian jawless vertebrates
Cephalaspidomorphi (=Monorhina)
Anaspidiformes anaspids, Silurian fossils
Cephalaspidiformes (=Osteostraci) cephalaspids, osteostracans, armoured fossils
Petromyzontiformes (=Hyperoartii) lampreys (Lampetra Petromyzon)
Placodermi placoderms, jointed neck fish, armoured fossils
Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fish — dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula — dogfish, Squalus acanthias — spiny dogfish, spurdog), rays (Torpedo — electric rays), sharks (Carcharodon carcharias — white shark) etc
Actinopterygii (=Osteichthyes)
ray-finned fish; includes most living 'bony' fish (teleosts) (Anguilla — eels, Carassius auratus — goldfish, Ctenopharyngodon idella — grass carp, Cyprinus carpio — carp, Gadus morhua — carp, Oncorhynchus — salmon, Salmo — salmon and trout
Sarcopterygii lobe-finned fish — coelacanths (Latimeria), lung fish etc; now considered to also include all tetrapod groups more traditionally considered separately (see below)
'Tetrapod' groups
'with four limbs'; these may also be categorized as Amniota (mammals, reptiles, dinosaurs and birds), with all living and fossil amphibians placed in various non-amniote groups; Amphibia and Reptilia together are sometimes referred to as 'herptiles'
Amphibia amphibians spend part of their life in water, breathe through skin & gills, lay eggs in water and lack scales, cold blooded [links]
Labyrinthodontia fossils
Lepospondyli fossils
Lissamphibia includes
all living amphibians
Anura (=Salienta)
frogs (Rana), toads (Bufo bufo — common toad, Bufo marinus — marine toad, cane toad, Dominican toad, Xenopus laevis — clawed toad) [links]
Caudata (=Urodela)
salamanders, newts (Notophthalmus viridescens, Pleurodeles waltlii, Triturus cristatus — crested newt, Triturus vulgaris — common newt), mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus) [links]
Gymnophiona (=Apoda)
caecilians [links]

Reptilia reptiles [links] have scales and an amniote egg adapted to survival out of water, cold blooded and mostly well adapted to life on land; contains many fossil groups including the dinosaurs; modern taxonomy often places the lizards, crocodiles, birds, Sphenodon, and their extinct relatives into one amniote group — the Diapsida; some reptilian groups with living representatives are:
Testudines tortoises, turtles [links]
Cryptodira modern turtles
Sauria crocodiles [links] lizards [links]
Amphisbaenia worm lizards [links]
Serpentes snakes [links]

Aves birds have feathers, no teeth, modified forelimbs (wings), can regulate their body temperature and have land adapted eggs with shells (current theories place birds in a separate group — the Archosauria along with dinosaurs, crocodiles & their relatives); there are many orders of birds, some of the better known ones with living representatives include: [links]
Anseriformes ducks (Anas platyrhynchos — domestic duck), geese (Anser anser — domestic goose), swans [links]
Apodiformes hummingbirds (Trochilidae), swifts (Apodidae) [links]
Apterygiformes kiwis (Apteryx australis — brown kiwi, Apteryx owenii — little spotted kiwi) [links]
Caprimulgiformes goatsuckers (Caprimulgidae, Chordeiles minor — common nighthawk) [links ]
Casuariiformes cassowaries, emus [links]
Charadriiformes shore birds, auks (Alcidae), gulls and terns (Laridae), plovers (Charadriidae), sandpipers (Scolopacidae) [links]
Ciconiiformes herons and bitterns (Ardeidae), ibises (Threskiornithidae), storks (Ciconiidae) [links]
Columbiformes pigeons and doves (Columbidae, Columba livia — rock dove) [links]
Cuculiformes cuckoos (Cuculidae) [links]
Falconiformes falcons (Falconidae, Falco peregrinus — peregrine falcon), hawks and old world vultures (Accipitridae, Aquila chrysaetos — golden eagle), ospreys (Pandionidae, Pandion haliaetus — osprey), new world vultures (Cathartidae) [links]
Galliformes domestic fowl (Coturnix japonica — quail, Gallus gallus — domestic chicken, red junglefowl, Meleagris gallopavo — turkey), game birds (Phasianus colchicus — ring necked pheasant) [links]
Gaviiformes divers and loons (Gaviidae) [links]
Gruiformes cranes (Gruidae), rails (coots, moorhens, gallinules — Rallidae) [links]
Passeriformes passerines, perching birds, song birds [links]
Phoenocopteriformes flamingos (Phoenicopterus)
Pelecaniformes cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae), frigatebirds (Fregatidae), gannets and boobies (Sulidae), pelicans (Pelecanidae, Pelecanus onocrotalus — great white pelican) [links]
Piciformes woodpeckers (Picidae), toucans (Ramphastidae) [links]
Podicipediformes grebes (Podicipedidae) [links]
Procellariiformes albatrosses (Diomedeidae), fulmars, shearwaters and petrels (Procellariidae) [links]
Psittaciformes parrots (Melopsittacus undulatus — budgerigar) [links]
Rheiformes rheas (Rheidae) [links]
Sphenisciformes penguins (Spheniscidae, Aptenodytes forsteri — emperor penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae Adelie penguin) [links]
Strigiformes barn owls (Tytonidae, Tyto alba — barn owl), owls (Strigidae, Asio otus — long-eared owl, Nyctea scandiaca — snowy owl) [links]
Struthioniformes cassowaries (Casuariidae), emus (Dromaiidae, Dromaius novaehollandiae (larger emu), ostriches (Struthionidae, Struthio camelus — ostrich) [links]

Mammalia mammals can regulate their body temperatures, generally have hair, bear live young & nourish them with milk produced by mammary glands, the majority are
placental [links]; in addition to numerous groups known only from fossils the mammalian orders are:
Artiodactyla even toed hoofed mammals — camels (Camelus — bactrian camel, dromedary), cattle (Bos indicus — zebu cattle, Bos taurus — domestic cattle of Europe, former USSR and USA, Bubalus bubalis — Asian water buffalo), deer, giraffes, goats (Capra hircus — domestic goat), hippos, llamas, pigs (Sus scrofa — domestic pig), sheep (Ovies aries — domestic sheep) [links]
Carnivora carnivores — badgers, bears, cats (Felis catus — domestic cat), dogs (Canis familiaris — domestic dog), ferrets (Mustela furo — domestic ferret), otters, seals, weasels, wolves [links]
Cetacea dolphins (Delphinus delphis — common dolphin, Tursiops truncatus — bottlenose dolphin), whales (blue whale — Balaenoptera musculus, humpback whale — Megaptera, killer whale — Orcinus orca, minke whale — Balaenoptera acutorostrata) [links]
Chiroptera bats (big brown bat — Eptesicus fuscus, hoary bat — Lasiurus cinereus), flying foxes (Pteropus) [links]
Dermoptera flying lemurs (Cynocephalus) [links]
Desmostylia extinct mammal group [links]
Edentata edentates — anteaters (giant anteater — Myrmecophaga tridactyla, pygmy anteater — Cyclopes didactylus), armadillos (giant armadillo — Priodontes maximus, nine-banded armadillo — Dasypus novemcinctus), sloths (three-toed sloths — Bradypus, two-toed sloths — Choloepus) [links]
Embrithopoda [links]
Hyracoidea hyraxes (common rock hyrax — Procavia capensis) [links]
Insectivora insectivores — hedgehogs (west European hedgehog — Erinaceus europaeus), moles (European mole — Talpa europaea), shrews (comon shrew — Sorex araneus, pygmy shrew — Sorex hoyi) [links]
Lagomorpha lagomorphs — hares (common hares, jackrabbits — Lepus), pikas (Ochotona), rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus — common European rabbit, Sylvilagus — cottontail rabbits) [links]
Marsupialia marsupials — kangaroos and wallabies (Macropodidae, eastern grey kangaroo — Macropus giganteus, red or plains kangaroo — Macropus rufus), koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), wombats (Vombatus) [links]
Monotremata egg laying mammals, monotremes — platypus (duck-billed platypus — Ornithorhynchus anatinus), echidnas or spiny anteaters (Tachyglossus, Zaglossus) [links]
Perissodactyla odd toed hoofed mammals — horses (Equus asinus — ass, donkey, Equus caballus — true horse), rhinoceroses (black rhino — Diceros bicornis, white rhino — Ceratotherium simum), tapirs (Tapirus), zebras (mountain or Hartmann's zebra — Equus zebra) [links]
Pholidota pangolins (Manis) [links]
Primates lemurs (Lemuridae, ring tail lemurs — Lemur, brown lemurs — Eulemur), marmosets (Callithrix jacchus — common marmoset), monkeys (Macaca — macaques, Pan troglodytes — chimpanzee, Papio — baboons, Saimiri sciureus — squirrel monkey), tamarins (Saguinus), vervets & man (Homo sapiens — modern man) [links]
Proboscidea elephants (african elephant — Loxodonta africana, Asian elephant — Elephas maximus), mammoths [links]
Rodentia rodents — cavies (Cavia porcellus — guinea pig), chinchillas (Chinchilla), gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus — Mongolian gerbil), hamsters (Cricetus cricetus — common hamster, Cricetulus griseus — Chinese hamster, Mesocricetus auratus — golden hamster), mice (Mus musculus — house mouse), porcupines, rats (Rattus norvegicus — Norway rat, Rattus rattus — black rat) [links]
Sirenia dugongs (Dugong dugon), manatees (Trichechus) [links]
Tubulidentata aadvarks (Orycteropus afer) [links]